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        1. Welcome!

          Our data in action. City-Data Blog.

          What strange things do people search for on Google? How does income tax affect migration patterns? What features are popular in which type of homes?

          At the City-Data Blog, our writers utilize data to answer questions you never knew you had. From silly, light-hearted investigations to powerful economic examinations, we cover a range of topics that anyone can enjoy! Our writers, many of them Ph.D. graduates or candidates, create easy-to-read articles on a wide variety of topics.

          Over 18 million Americans live in areas with high noise levels

          Andrey Kamenov

          Andrey Kamenov, Ph.D. Probability and Statistics

          According to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency press release dating back as far as 1974, average outdoor noise levels below 55 dB “are identified as preventing activity interference and annoyance.” At the same time, more than 18.5 million Americans live in areas where the average existing noise levels are above this threshold.

          Two states, New York and Illinois, stand out on the map below. The shares of the total population of these states living in areas with high noise levels are 18.1 percent and 15.7 percent respectively. The percentage registered in California is surprisingly small for such a densely-populated and urbanized area: only 1.5 percent.

          Continue reading Over 18 million Americans live in areas with high noise levels

          Popular New Year’s resolutions

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          New Year’s is one of the most celebrated days in the world. It’s the most wonderful time of the year, full of gifts and long-awaited surprises for those kids who didn’t misbehave.

          According to a survey among young adults (published at Statista.com) in 2015, about 72 percent of respondents said that they typically spent New Year’s Eve at home. Slightly above 20 percent stated that they were guests at someone else’s home on New Year’s Eve, and about 10 percent celebrated in a restaurant, bar or club.

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          Christmas is America’s favorite holiday season

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          Christmas is a civil holiday and an important part of the holiday season. During the Christmas shopping season, sales increase in almost all retail sectors. According to Statista.com, the most popular gift in the United States across all income levels is gift cards: 52 percent.

          The statistics show that American consumers expected to spend an average of about $830 on Christmas gifts in 2015. In comparison, the average sum in 2014 was $720. In 2013, U.S. consumers spent approximately $704, compared to $770 in 2012. The highest average spending occurred in 2007; this year, Americans spent an average of $866 dollars on Christmas gifts.

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          Search engine queries in the United States

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          The total number of search engine users in the United States in 2014 was estimated to be around 213.6 million (as you can see on the chart below). In 2015, about 219.7 million U.S. internet users accessed online search services such as Yahoo! or Google. By the end of 2017, the total number of search engine users reached 230 million.

          The suggests that in 2018 and 2019 the number of search engine users will grow to 233.9 million and 236.5 million users respectively. By 2020, the number is expected to increase to 239.1 million users.

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          Continue reading Search engine queries in the United States

          Places to buy a real Christmas tree in the U.S.

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          It’s no surprise that Christmas is known as the most wonderful time of the year. Is it possible to celebrate Christmas without a Christmas tree? I don’t think so. Christmas trees are traditionally associated with the widely-celebrated holiday. The tree was traditionally decorated with edibles such as apples, nuts or dates and was illuminated by candles. Today, a wide variety of traditional ornaments including tinsel, candy canes, garland and Christmas lights are used. So where’s the best place to buy a nice tree?

          Continue reading Places to buy a real Christmas tree in the U.S.

          Christmas holiday gifts wishlist

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          According to a survey by Deloitte published at, consumers are planning to purchase a wide variety of different types of gifts for the holiday season. Last year, about 53 percent of U.S. respondents stated that they planned on buying clothing as a holiday gift. Аpproximately the same percentage of people said that they planned to purchase gift cards or gift certificates this season. About 46 percent of the respondents stated that they expected to purchase games or toys, and 39 percent stated they wanted to buy liquor or food items as gifts.

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          Continue reading Christmas holiday gifts wishlist

          The teen pregnancy rate is on the decline

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          A quick review of the among U.S. teens shows that the trend is decreasing. For example, in 2008 there were around 68 teen pregnancies per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 19 in the U.S. In 2009 and 2010, the rate decreased to approximately 64 and 58 pregnancies per 1,000 teen girls respectively. There were about 52 pregnancies per 1,000 teen girls in 2011 and 48 in 2012. In 2013, the rate dipped again to around 43 teen pregnancies per 1,000 women aged between 15 and 19 years in the U.S. — the lowest in the last 25 years. Clearly, that is a huge decrease.

          Continue reading The teen pregnancy rate is on the decline

          Who are the U.S. users of Instagram?

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          According to information about , there were approximately 1000 million active global users of the photo-sharing network in June 2018. If we look at users in the United States, we see that in 2018 the number of monthly active users reached 104.7 million. In comparison, in 2016 and 2017 the number of U.S. users was 69.1 million and 92.6 million respectively.

          show that in 2019 the number of monthly active users will grow to 113.3 million. This number is expected to increase further in 2020, reaching 120.3 million active users in the U.S. According to the forecast, in 2021 and 2022 the overall number of Instagram users in the country will be around 125.7 million and 130.7 million users.

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          Continue reading Who are the U.S. users of Instagram?

          Protective measures implemented by online harassment victims

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          Online harassment is a big problem in the United States nowadays, and problems of this nature can be difficult to control. According to the on the most common types of online harassment experienced by internet users in the U.S., 23 percent of female internet users had experienced harassment with offensive names as of January 2017. About 21 percent of American female internet users suffered from purposeful embarrassment, while 8 percent experienced physical threats and sexual harassment. Additionally, 6 percent suffered from stalking and 7 percent from sustained harassment.

          As a result, overall around 37 percent of female U.S. internet users said that they experienced online harassment. In comparison, the overall percentage of male internet users in the country who experienced online harassment was even higher — 44 percent of men said they had been harassed online. If we look at the most common types of harassment that men experienced, 30 percent were called offensive names, 24 percent experienced purposeful embarrassment, 12 percent experienced physical threats, 8 percent experienced stalking and sustained harassment and 4 percent experienced sexual harassment online.

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          Many victims of online harassment take steps to protect themselves. As of July 2016, 43 percent of the people surveyed changed their contact information. About 36 percent stated that they changed their email address or telephone number. Approximately 21 percent of online harassment victims created a new social media profile under a different name.

          Many people (26 percent of the respondents) asked a friend or family member for help, while 11 percent got a restraining order or protection order. About 27 percent of people reported or flagged content that was posted about someone on a website without person’s permission. About 26 percent disconnected from online networks or devices, and 21 percent stopped using social media.

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          Commercial and tribal casinos

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          Pavel Prikhodko, Ph.D. Machine Learning

          According to the , there were a total of 460 commercial casinos in the United States in 2017. This number includes both land-based and riverboat casinos. The number of commercial casinos in the country in 2016 was the highest in the last decade (524) — in comparison, during 2010 there were only 438 casinos. In comparison, 2005 saw only 455 casinos operating.

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          Telling stories through data